## Friday, November 22, 2019

### SDP Model: imputing a covariance matrix

#### Missing values

Missing values are a well-known problem in statistics. The simplest approach is just to delete all data cases that have missing values. Another approach is to repair things by filling in reasonable values. This is called imputation. Imputation strategies can be very sophisticated (and complex).

Statistical tools have often direct support for representing missing values. E.g. the R language has NA (not available). The modeling language GAMS also has NA. Python, however, has no explicit support for missing values . By convention, the special floating point value NaN (Not a Number) is used to indicate missing values for floating point numbers. One real disadvantage is that NaN is not available for other data types than floating point numbers. Furthermore, the object None can be used to indicate missing values. As None is an object, that approach often yields a performance penalty. It is noted that the numpy library has some facilities to deal with missing data through masks (this is really different from NA in R and GAMS).

#### Imputing missing values in a covariance matrix

In  a semi-definite programming (SDP) model is proposed to deal with a covariance matrix with some missing values by imputation. The constraint to be added is that the covariance matrix should remain positive-semi definite (PSD). A covariance matrix should be in theory PSD, but in practice it can happen it is not. The resulting model is stated as:

SDP Model: Imputation of Covariance Matrix
\begin{align} \text{minimize}\>& 0\\ \text{subject to}\>&\color{darkred}{\Sigma}_{i,j} = \widetilde{\color{darkblue}{\Sigma}}_{i,j} && (i,j)\notin \color{darkblue}M\\ & \color{darkred}{\Sigma} \succeq 0 \end{align}

The notation is taken from .  Here $$\widetilde{\Sigma}$$ is the (original) covariance matrix with missing data in locations $$(i,j)\in M$$. The variable $$\Sigma$$ is the new covariance matrix with missing data filled in such that $$\Sigma$$ is positive semi-definite. This last condition is denoted by $$\Sigma \succeq 0$$. In this model there is no objective, as indicated by minimizing zero.

#### CVXPY implementation

There is no code provided for this model in . So let me give it a try. CVXPY does not have good support for things like $$\forall (i,j) \notin M$$.  I can see two approaches:

• Expand the constraint into scalar form. Essentially, a DIY approach.
• Use a binary data matrix $$M_{i,j} \in \{0,1\}$$ indicating the missing values and write $(e\cdot e^T-M) \circ \Sigma = \widetilde{\Sigma}_0$ where $$\circ$$ is elementwise multiplication (a.k.a. Hadamard product), $$e$$ is a column vector of ones of appropriate size, and $$\widetilde{\Sigma}_0$$ is $$\widetilde{\Sigma}$$ but with NaN's replaced by zeros.

In addition, let's add a regularizing objective: minimize sum of squares of $$\Sigma_{i,j}$$.

The Python code for these two models is:

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import cvxpy as cp

#------------ data ----------------

cov = np.array([
[ 0.300457, -0.158889,  0.080241, -0.143750,  0.072844, -0.032968,  0.077836,  0.049272],
[-0.158889,  0.399624,  np.nan,    0.109056,  0.082858, -0.045462, -0.124045, -0.132096],
[ 0.080241,  np.nan,    np.nan,   -0.031902, -0.081455,  0.098212,  0.243131,  0.120404],
[-0.143750,  0.109056, -0.031902,  0.386109, -0.058051,  0.060246,  0.082420,  0.125786],
[ 0.072844,  0.082858, -0.081455, -0.058051,  np.nan,    np.nan,   -0.119530, -0.054881],
[-0.032968, -0.045462,  0.098212,  0.060246,  np.nan,    0.400641,  0.051103,  0.007308],
[ 0.077836, -0.124045,  0.243131,  0.082420, -0.119530,  0.051103,  0.543407,  0.121709],
[ 0.049272, -0.132096,  0.120404,  0.125786, -0.054881,  0.007308,  0.121709,  0.481395]
])
print("Covariance data with NaNs")
print(pd.DataFrame(cov))

M = 1*np.isnan(cov)
print("M (indicator for missing values)")
print(pd.DataFrame(M))

dim = np.shape(cov)
n = dim

#----------- model 1 -----------------

Sigma = cp.Variable(dim, symmetric=True)

prob = cp.Problem(
cp.Minimize(cp.sum_squares(Sigma)),
[ Sigma[i,j] == cov[i,j] for i in range(n) for j in range(n) if M[i,j]==0 ] +
[ Sigma >> 0 ]
)
prob.solve(solver=cp.SCS,verbose=True)

print("Status:",prob.status)
print("Objective:",prob.value)
print(pd.DataFrame(Sigma.value))

#----------- model 2 -----------------

e = np.ones((n,1))
cov0 =  np.nan_to_num(cov,copy=True)

prob2 = cp.Problem(
#    cp.Minimize(cp.trace(Sigma.T@Sigma)),  <--- not recognized as convex
cp.Minimize(cp.norm(Sigma,"fro")**2),
[ cp.multiply(e@e.T - M,Sigma) == cov0,
Sigma >> 0 ]
)
prob2.solve(solver=cp.SCS,verbose=True)

print("Status:",prob2.status)
print("Objective:",prob2.value)
print(pd.DataFrame(Sigma.value))


Notes:

• Model 1 has a (long) list of scalar constraints. The objective is $\min\>\sum_{i,j} \Sigma_{i,j}^2$ Sorry for the possible confusion between the symbols for summation and covariance.
• CVXPY uses the notation Sigma >> 0 to indicate $$\Sigma \succeq 0$$ (i.e. $$\Sigma$$ should be positive semi-definite).
• We added the condition that $$\Sigma$$ should be symmetric in the variable statement. This seems to be needed. Without this, the solver may return a non-symmetric matrix. I suspect that in that case, the matrix $$0.5(\Sigma+\Sigma^T)$$ rather than $$\Sigma$$ itself is required to be positive definite.
• Model 2 is an attempt to use matrix notation. The objective can be stated as $\min\>\mathbf{tr}(\Sigma^T\Sigma)$ but that is not recognized as being convex. As alternative I used the Frobenius norm: $||A||_F =\sqrt{ \sum_{i,j} a_{i,j}^2}$
• The function np.nan_to_num converts NaN values to zeros.
• The function cp.multiply performs elementwise multiplication (as opposed to matrix multiplication).
• I don't think we can easily only pass only the upper triangular part of the covariance matrix to the solver. For large problems this would save some effort (cpu time and memory).
• In a traditional optimization model we would have just $$|M|$$ decision variables (corresponding to the missing values). Here, in the scalar model, we have $$n^2$$ variables and $$n^2-|M|$$ constraints.

The results are:

Covariance data with NaNs
0         1         2         3         4         5         6  \
0  0.300457 -0.158889  0.080241 -0.143750  0.072844 -0.032968  0.077836
1 -0.158889  0.399624       NaN  0.109056  0.082858 -0.045462 -0.124045
2  0.080241       NaN       NaN -0.031902 -0.081455  0.098212  0.243131
3 -0.143750  0.109056 -0.031902  0.386109 -0.058051  0.060246  0.082420
4  0.072844  0.082858 -0.081455 -0.058051       NaN       NaN -0.119530
5 -0.032968 -0.045462  0.098212  0.060246       NaN  0.400641  0.051103
6  0.077836 -0.124045  0.243131  0.082420 -0.119530  0.051103  0.543407
7  0.049272 -0.132096  0.120404  0.125786 -0.054881  0.007308  0.121709

7
0  0.049272
1 -0.132096
2  0.120404
3  0.125786
4 -0.054881
5  0.007308
6  0.121709
7  0.481395
M (indicator for missing values)
0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0
2  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0
3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
4  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0
5  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0
6  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
7  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SCS v2.1.1 - Splitting Conic Solver
(c) Brendan O'Donoghue, Stanford University, 2012
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lin-sys: sparse-direct, nnz in A = 160
eps = 1.00e-04, alpha = 1.50, max_iters = 5000, normalize = 1, scale = 1.00
acceleration_lookback = 10, rho_x = 1.00e-03
Variables n = 37, constraints m = 160
Cones: primal zero / dual free vars: 58
soc vars: 66, soc blks: 1
sd vars: 36, sd blks: 1
Setup time: 9.69e-03s
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Iter | pri res | dua res | rel gap | pri obj | dua obj | kap/tau | time (s)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0| 4.05e+19  7.57e+19  1.00e+00 -3.12e+19  1.92e+20  1.21e+20  1.53e-02
40| 2.74e-10  1.01e-09  4.51e-11  1.71e+00  1.71e+00  1.96e-17  1.88e-02
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Status: Solved
Timing: Solve time: 1.89e-02s
Lin-sys: nnz in L factor: 357, avg solve time: 1.54e-06s
Cones: avg projection time: 1.52e-04s
Acceleration: avg step time: 1.66e-05s
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Error metrics:
dist(s, K) = 4.7898e-17, dist(y, K*) = 1.5753e-09, s'y/|s||y| = 3.7338e-12
primal res: |Ax + s - b|_2 / (1 + |b|_2) = 2.7439e-10
dual res:   |A'y + c|_2 / (1 + |c|_2) = 1.0103e-09
rel gap:    |c'x + b'y| / (1 + |c'x| + |b'y|) = 4.5078e-11
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
c'x = 1.7145, -b'y = 1.7145
============================================================================
Status: optimal
Objective: 1.714544257213233
0         1         2         3         4         5         6  \
0  0.300457 -0.158889  0.080241 -0.143750  0.072844 -0.032968  0.077836
1 -0.158889  0.399624 -0.084196  0.109056  0.082858 -0.045462 -0.124045
2  0.080241 -0.084196  0.198446 -0.031902 -0.081455  0.098212  0.243131
3 -0.143750  0.109056 -0.031902  0.386109 -0.058051  0.060246  0.082420
4  0.072844  0.082858 -0.081455 -0.058051  0.135981 -0.041927 -0.119530
5 -0.032968 -0.045462  0.098212  0.060246 -0.041927  0.400641  0.051103
6  0.077836 -0.124045  0.243131  0.082420 -0.119530  0.051103  0.543407
7  0.049272 -0.132096  0.120404  0.125786 -0.054881  0.007308  0.121709

7
0  0.049272
1 -0.132096
2  0.120404
3  0.125786
4 -0.054881
5  0.007308
6  0.121709
7  0.481395
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SCS v2.1.1 - Splitting Conic Solver
(c) Brendan O'Donoghue, Stanford University, 2012
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lin-sys: sparse-direct, nnz in A = 162
eps = 1.00e-04, alpha = 1.50, max_iters = 5000, normalize = 1, scale = 1.00
acceleration_lookback = 10, rho_x = 1.00e-03
Variables n = 38, constraints m = 168
Cones: primal zero / dual free vars: 64
soc vars: 68, soc blks: 2
sd vars: 36, sd blks: 1
Setup time: 1.02e-02s
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Iter | pri res | dua res | rel gap | pri obj | dua obj | kap/tau | time (s)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0| 3.67e+19  5.42e+19  1.00e+00 -2.45e+19  1.28e+20  1.04e+20  9.84e-03
40| 5.85e-10  1.47e-09  7.31e-10  1.71e+00  1.71e+00  8.09e-17  1.29e-02
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Status: Solved
Timing: Solve time: 1.31e-02s
Lin-sys: nnz in L factor: 368, avg solve time: 2.56e-06s
Cones: avg projection time: 3.03e-05s
Acceleration: avg step time: 2.45e-05s
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Error metrics:
dist(s, K) = 4.4409e-16, dist(y, K*) = 1.5216e-09, s'y/|s||y| = 4.2866e-12
primal res: |Ax + s - b|_2 / (1 + |b|_2) = 5.8496e-10
dual res:   |A'y + c|_2 / (1 + |c|_2) = 1.4729e-09
rel gap:    |c'x + b'y| / (1 + |c'x| + |b'y|) = 7.3074e-10
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
c'x = 1.7145, -b'y = 1.7145
============================================================================
Status: optimal
Objective: 1.714544261472336
0         1         2         3         4         5         6  \
0  0.300457 -0.158889  0.080241 -0.143750  0.072844 -0.032968  0.077836
1 -0.158889  0.399624 -0.084196  0.109056  0.082858 -0.045462 -0.124045
2  0.080241 -0.084196  0.198446 -0.031902 -0.081455  0.098212  0.243131
3 -0.143750  0.109056 -0.031902  0.386109 -0.058051  0.060246  0.082420
4  0.072844  0.082858 -0.081455 -0.058051  0.135981 -0.041927 -0.119530
5 -0.032968 -0.045462  0.098212  0.060246 -0.041927  0.400641  0.051103
6  0.077836 -0.124045  0.243131  0.082420 -0.119530  0.051103  0.543407
7  0.049272 -0.132096  0.120404  0.125786 -0.054881  0.007308  0.121709

7
0  0.049272
1 -0.132096
2  0.120404
3  0.125786
4 -0.054881
5  0.007308
6  0.121709
7  0.481395


As a sanity check we can confirm that the eigenvalues of the solution matrix are non-negative:

w,v = np.linalg.eig(Sigma.value)
print(w)

[9.46355900e-01 6.34465779e-01 2.35993549e-10 5.30366506e-02
1.69999646e-01 2.29670882e-01 4.36623248e-01 3.75907704e-01]


#### Practice: propagation of NAs and pairwise covariances

I don't think this is a practical way of dealing with missing values. First of all missing values in the original data will propagate in the covariance matrix. A single NA in the data leads to lots of NAs in the covariance matrix.

----     28 PARAMETER cov  effect of a single NA in the data

j1          j2          j3          j4          j5          j6          j7          j8

j1    0.300457   -0.158889          NA   -0.143750    0.072844   -0.032968    0.077836    0.049272
j2   -0.158889    0.399624          NA    0.109056    0.082858   -0.045462   -0.124045   -0.132096
j3          NA          NA          NA          NA          NA          NA          NA          NA
j4   -0.143750    0.109056          NA    0.386109   -0.058051    0.060246    0.082420    0.125786
j5    0.072844    0.082858          NA   -0.058051    0.354627   -0.129507   -0.119530   -0.054881
j6   -0.032968   -0.045462          NA    0.060246   -0.129507    0.400641    0.051103    0.007308
j7    0.077836   -0.124045          NA    0.082420   -0.119530    0.051103    0.543407    0.121709
j8    0.049272   -0.132096          NA    0.125786   -0.054881    0.007308    0.121709    0.481395


This propagation is the result of the fact that any operation on NA yields NA. I.e.$\mathbf{NA}+ x=\mathbf{NA}\cdot x = \mathbf{NA}$ When applying the standard formula for the covariance: $cov_{j,k} = \frac{1}{N-1} \sum_i (x_{i,j}-\mu_j)(x_{i,k}-\mu_k)$ we see this propagation in action. The above results were obtained using GAMS using this exact formula. This problem is of course difficult to fix after the fact in the covariance matrix. Just too much damage has been done.

A second problem with our SDP model is that we are not staying close to reasonable values for missing correlations. The model only looks at the PSD constraint.

Basically, the answer is that we need to look more carefully at the original data.

A simple remedy is just to throw away the record with the NA. If you have lots of data and relatively few NAs in the data, this is a reasonable approach. However there is a trick we can use. Instead of throwing away a whole row of observations in case we have an NA, we inspect pairs of columns $$(j,k)$$ individually. For the two columns $$j$$ and $$k$$ throw away the observations with NAs in these columns and then calculate the covariance $$cov_{j,k}$$. Repeat for all combinations $$(j,k)$$ with $$j \lt k$$. This means the number of usable observations is varying for different columbinations $$(j,k)$$. R has this pairwise covariance calculation built-in.

> cov(a)
[,1]         [,2]         [,3]        [,4]          [,5]          [,6]         [,7]          [,8]
[1,]  0.3269524261 -0.022335922  0.024062915 0.026460677 -0.0003735916  0.0021383397 0.0544727640 -0.0008417817
[2,] -0.0223359222  0.313444259  0.036135413 0.027115454 -0.0045955942  0.0286659334 0.0558610843  0.0222590384
[3,]  0.0240629148  0.036135413  0.308443182 0.003663338  0.0014232064 -0.0158431246 0.0308769925 -0.0177244600
[4,]  0.0264606771  0.027115454  0.003663338 0.322801448  0.0057221934  0.0175051722 0.0152804438  0.0034349411
[5,] -0.0003735916 -0.004595594  0.001423206 0.005722193  0.2920368646 -0.0069213567 0.0227153919  0.0163823701
[6,]  0.0021383397  0.028665933 -0.015843125 0.017505172 -0.0069213567  0.3095935603 0.0009359271  0.0506571760
[7,]  0.0544727640  0.055861084  0.030876993 0.015280444  0.0227153919  0.0009359271 0.3635080311  0.0322080200
[8,] -0.0008417817  0.022259038 -0.017724460 0.003434941  0.0163823701  0.0506571760 0.0322080200  0.2992700098
> a[2,3]=NA
> cov(a)
[,1]         [,2] [,3]        [,4]          [,5]          [,6]         [,7]          [,8]
[1,]  0.3269524261 -0.022335922   NA 0.026460677 -0.0003735916  0.0021383397 0.0544727640 -0.0008417817
[2,] -0.0223359222  0.313444259   NA 0.027115454 -0.0045955942  0.0286659334 0.0558610843  0.0222590384
[3,]            NA           NA   NA          NA            NA            NA           NA            NA
[4,]  0.0264606771  0.027115454   NA 0.322801448  0.0057221934  0.0175051722 0.0152804438  0.0034349411
[5,] -0.0003735916 -0.004595594   NA 0.005722193  0.2920368646 -0.0069213567 0.0227153919  0.0163823701
[6,]  0.0021383397  0.028665933   NA 0.017505172 -0.0069213567  0.3095935603 0.0009359271  0.0506571760
[7,]  0.0544727640  0.055861084   NA 0.015280444  0.0227153919  0.0009359271 0.3635080311  0.0322080200
[8,] -0.0008417817  0.022259038   NA 0.003434941  0.0163823701  0.0506571760 0.0322080200  0.2992700098
> cov(a,use="pairwise")
[,1]         [,2]         [,3]        [,4]          [,5]          [,6]         [,7]          [,8]
[1,]  0.3269524261 -0.022335922  0.024077969 0.026460677 -0.0003735916  0.0021383397 0.0544727640 -0.0008417817
[2,] -0.0223359222  0.313444259  0.036895996 0.027115454 -0.0045955942  0.0286659334 0.0558610843  0.0222590384
[3,]  0.0240779693  0.036895996  0.311573754 0.003377392  0.0013694087 -0.0162231609 0.0310202082 -0.0180617800
[4,]  0.0264606771  0.027115454  0.003377392 0.322801448  0.0057221934  0.0175051722 0.0152804438  0.0034349411
[5,] -0.0003735916 -0.004595594  0.001369409 0.005722193  0.2920368646 -0.0069213567 0.0227153919  0.0163823701
[6,]  0.0021383397  0.028665933 -0.016223161 0.017505172 -0.0069213567  0.3095935603 0.0009359271  0.0506571760
[7,]  0.0544727640  0.055861084  0.031020208 0.015280444  0.0227153919  0.0009359271 0.3635080311  0.0322080200
[8,] -0.0008417817  0.022259038 -0.018061780 0.003434941  0.0163823701  0.0506571760 0.0322080200  0.2992700098
>


The disadvantage with pairwise covariances is that it is possible (even theoretically) that the final covariance matrix is not positive-semi definite. We can repair this with R's nearPD function. The next section discusses some strategies we can use to achieve the same as this function.

#### Finding a nearby positive definite matrix

An algorithm to find a positive definite matrix $$A$$ that is close to the original matrix $$A_0$$ is as follows:

1. Form an eigen decomposition of $$A_0$$ using something like $(\lambda,V) := \mathbf{eig}(A_0)$
2. Replace negative eigenvalues: $\lambda_i := \max(\lambda_i, 10^{-6})$
3. Reassemble the matrix: $A := V \cdot \mathbf{diag}(\lambda) \cdot V^T$

We can also formulate this as a Semi-Definite Program:

Closest Positive Semi-Definite Matrix
\begin{align} \min\>& ||\color{darkred}A - \color{darkblue}A_0|| \\ & \color{darkred}A \succeq 0 \end{align}

The eigen decomposition approach will not find the optimal closest matrix (in terms of squared deviations). Let's compare the results of these two approaches on a small problem. Here is the Python code:

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import cvxpy as cp

A0 = [[ 0.130457, -0.158889,  0.080241, -0.143750,  0.072844, -0.032968,  0.077836,  0.049272],
[-0.158889,  0.229624, -0.219293,  0.109056,  0.082858, -0.045462, -0.124045, -0.132096],
[ 0.080241, -0.219293,  0.308231, -0.031902, -0.081455,  0.098212,  0.243131,  0.120404],
[-0.143750,  0.109056, -0.031902,  0.216109, -0.058051,  0.060246,  0.082420,  0.125786],
[ 0.072844,  0.082858, -0.081455, -0.058051,  0.184627, -0.129507, -0.119530, -0.054881],
[-0.032968, -0.045462,  0.098212,  0.060246, -0.129507,  0.230641,  0.051103,  0.007308],
[ 0.077836, -0.124045,  0.243131,  0.082420, -0.119530,  0.051103,  0.373407,  0.121709],
[ 0.049272, -0.132096,  0.120404,  0.125786, -0.054881,  0.007308,  0.121709,  0.311395]]

#--------------- eigenvalue approach ------------------

# eigen decomposition
u,v= np.linalg.eig(A0)
print("Eigenvalues:")
print(np.sort(u))

# replace negative eigenvalues
u = np.maximum(1.0e-6,u)

# reassemble matrix
A = v @ np.diag(u) @ v.T
print("*** Sum of squared differences:",np.sum((A-A0)**2))

#--------------- SDP model ------------------

dim = np.shape(A0)
A = cp.Variable(dim,symmetric=True)

prob = cp.Problem(cp.Minimize(cp.norm(A-A0,"fro")**2),
[A >> 0])
SSE = prob.solve(solver=cp.SCS, verbose=True)
print("*** Sum of squared differences:",SSE)


I used as objective $\min\> ||A-A_0||_F^2$ which is just the sum of squares. Obviously, I could have used the cp.sum_squares function instead. The difference between the two methods, in terms of the sum of squares, is very small:

Eigenvalues:
[-0.06620331 -0.022672    0.06166647  0.0944498   0.21259723  0.30736467
0.49401996  0.90326818]
*** Sum of squared differences: 0.004897075316543839
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SCS v2.1.1 - Splitting Conic Solver
(c) Brendan O'Donoghue, Stanford University, 2012
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lin-sys: sparse-direct, nnz in A = 104
eps = 1.00e-04, alpha = 1.50, max_iters = 5000, normalize = 1, scale = 1.00
acceleration_lookback = 10, rho_x = 1.00e-03
Variables n = 38, constraints m = 104
Cones: soc vars: 68, soc blks: 2
sd vars: 36, sd blks: 1
Setup time: 8.19e-03s
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Iter | pri res | dua res | rel gap | pri obj | dua obj | kap/tau | time (s)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0| 4.97e+19  4.58e+19  1.00e+00 -3.53e+19  2.93e+19  6.25e+19  1.27e-02
20| 1.92e-10  3.09e-10  6.99e-10  4.90e-03  4.90e-03  6.36e-17  1.41e-02
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Status: Solved
Timing: Solve time: 1.42e-02s
Lin-sys: nnz in L factor: 246, avg solve time: 1.96e-06s
Cones: avg projection time: 4.11e-05s
Acceleration: avg step time: 2.01e-05s
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Error metrics:
dist(s, K) = 9.6655e-10, dist(y, K*) = 1.9088e-09, s'y/|s||y| = -1.7574e-12
primal res: |Ax + s - b|_2 / (1 + |b|_2) = 1.9164e-10
dual res:   |A'y + c|_2 / (1 + |c|_2) = 3.0911e-10
rel gap:    |c'x + b'y| / (1 + |c'x| + |b'y|) = 6.9872e-10
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
c'x = 0.0049, -b'y = 0.0049
============================================================================
*** Sum of squared differences: 0.004896897751827667


#### Conclusion

The model presented in  is interesting: it is not quite obvious how to implement it in matrix notation for use in CVXPY (and the code shown below the example in  is not directly related). However, it should be mentioned that better methods are available to address the underlying problem: how to handle missing values in a covariance matrix. Pairwise construction of the covariance matrix is an easy fix. In case a non-PSD covariance matrix is created, we can repair this is different ways.

#### References

1. Semidefinite program, https://www.cvxpy.org/examples/basic/sdp.html
2. Missing Data Functionality in NumPy, https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-1.10.1/neps/missing-data.html
3. Covariance matrix not positive definite in portfolio models, https://yetanothermathprogrammingconsultant.blogspot.com/2018/04/covariance-matrix-not-positive-definite.html
4. Higham, Nick (2002) Computing the nearest correlation matrix - a problem from finance; IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis 22, 329–343