Saturday, September 28, 2019

Duplicate constraints in Pyomo model


Pyomo [1]  is a popular Python based modeling tool. In [2] a question is posed about a situation where a certain constraint takes more than 8 hours to generate. As we shall see, the reason is that extra indices are used.

A simple example

The constraint \[y_i = \sum_j x_{i,j} \>\>\>\forall i,j\] is really malformed. The extra \(\forall j\) is problematic. What does this mean? There are two obvious interpretations:

  1. One could say, this is just wrong. Below we will see that GAMS and AMPL follow this approach.
  2. We can also interpret this differently. Assume the inner \(j\) is scoped (i.e. local). Then we could read this as: repeat the constraint \(y_i = \sum_j x_{i,j}\), \(n\) times. Here \(n=|J|\) is the cardinality of set \(J\). This is what Pyomo is doing.

LaTeX: no checks

Journal papers are often typeset using LaTeX. Not much checking there, and as a result authors are free to write equations like [3]:


Here we have the same thing. We have a summation over \(i\) as well as a \(\forall i\).

GAMS: syntax error

The GAMS fragment corresponding to this example, shows GAMS will object to this construct:

  11  equation e(i,j);
  12  e(i,j)..  y(i) =e= sum(j, x(i,j));
****                          $125
**** 125  Set is under control already

**** 1 ERROR(S)   0 WARNING(S)

AMPL: syntax error

AMPL also gives a syntax error. The message could be improved a bit:

D:\etc>ampl x.mod

d:x.mod, line 8 (offset 155):
        syntax error
context:  e{i in I, j in J}: Y[i] = sum{j  >>> in  <<< J} X[i,j];

Pyomo: create duplicate constraints

The Pyomo equivalent can look like:

def eqRule(m,i,j):
    return m.Y[i] == sum(m.X[i,j] for j in m.J);
model.Eq = Constraint(model.I,model.J,rule=eqRule)

This fragment is a bit more difficult to read, largely due to syntactic clutter. But in any case: Python and Pyomo accepts this constraint as written. To see what is generated, we can use


This will show something like:

Eq : Size=6, Index=Eq_index, Active=True
    Key          : Lower : Body                                     : Upper : Active
    ('i1', 'j1') :   0.0 : Y[i1] - (X[i1,j1] + X[i1,j2] + X[i1,j3]) :   0.0 :   True
    ('i1', 'j2') :   0.0 : Y[i1] - (X[i1,j1] + X[i1,j2] + X[i1,j3]) :   0.0 :   True
    ('i1', 'j3') :   0.0 : Y[i1] - (X[i1,j1] + X[i1,j2] + X[i1,j3]) :   0.0 :   True
    ('i2', 'j1') :   0.0 : Y[i2] - (X[i2,j1] + X[i2,j2] + X[i2,j3]) :   0.0 :   True
    ('i2', 'j2') :   0.0 : Y[i2] - (X[i2,j1] + X[i2,j2] + X[i2,j3]) :   0.0 :   True
    ('i2', 'j3') :   0.0 : Y[i2] - (X[i2,j1] + X[i2,j2] + X[i2,j3]) :   0.0 :   True

We see for each \(i\) we have three duplicates. The way to fix this is to remove the function argument \(j\) from eqRule:

def eqRule(m,i):
    return m.Y[i] == sum(m.X[i,j] for j in m.J);
model.Eq = Constraint(model.I,rule=eqRule)

After this, model.Eq.pprint() produces

Eq : Size=2, Index=I, Active=True
    Key : Lower : Body                                     : Upper : Active
     i1 :   0.0 : Y[i1] - (X[i1,j3] + X[i1,j2] + X[i1,j1]) :   0.0 :   True
     i2 :   0.0 : Y[i2] - (X[i2,j3] + X[i2,j2] + X[i2,j1]) :   0.0 :   True

This looks much better.

The original problem

The constraint in the original question was:

def period_capacity_dept(m, e, j, t, dp):
    return sum(a[e, j, dp, t]*m.y[e,j,t] for (e,j) in model.EJ)<= K[dp,t] + m.R[t,dp]
model.period_capacity_dept = Constraint(E, J, T, DP, rule=period_capacity_dept)

Using the knowledge of the previous paragraph we know this should really be:

def period_capacity_dept(m, t, dp):
    return sum(a[e, j, dp, t]*m.y[e,j,t] for (e,j) in model.EJ)<= K[dp,t] + m.R[t,dp]
model.period_capacity_dept = Constraint(T, DP, rule=period_capacity_dept)

Pyomo mixes mathematical notation with programming. I think that is one of the reasons this bug is more difficult to see. In normal programming, adding an argument to a function has an obvious meaning. However in this case, adding e,j means in effect: \(\forall e,j\). If \(e\) and \(j\) belong to large sets, we can easily create a large number of duplicates.

Notes: Debugging Pyomo models

When debugging Pyomo models there are a few tricks to know about:

  • Have a small data set available. Debugging with large data sets is very difficult and plain unpleasant.
  • Use model.symbol.pprint()
  • Create an LP file of the model. When using the pyomo script, use the convert option (don't forget the --symbolic-solver-labels flag). From Python code, use model.write(filename, io_options={'symbolic_solver_labels': True}).


Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Demo problem with constraint on standard deviation

In [1] a hypothetical demo problem is shown. I don't think it is a real problem, but rather contrived as an example. Nevertheless, there are things to say about it.

The problem is:
Original Problem
\[\begin{align}\min\>&\sum_i \color{darkred}x_i\\ & \mathbf{sd}(\color{darkred}x) \lt \color{darkblue}\alpha\\ & \color{darkred}x_i \in \{0,1\}\end{align}\]


  • Here sd is the standard deviation
  • We assume \(x\) has \(n\) components.
  • Of course, \(\lt\) is problematic in optimization. So the equation should become a \(\le\) constraint.
  • The standard formula for the standard deviation is: \[ \sqrt{\frac{\sum_i (x_i-\bar{x})^2}{n-1}}\] where \(\bar{x}\) is the average of \(x\).
  • This is an easy problem. Just choose \(x_i=0\).
  • When we use  \(\max \sum_i x_i\) things are equally simple. In that case choose \(x_i = 1\).
  • There is symmetry: \(\mathbf{sd}(x) = \mathbf{sd}(1-x)\).
  • A more interesting problem is to have \(\mathbf{sd}(x)\ge\alpha\).

Updated problem

A slightly different problem, and somewhat reformulated is:

MIQCP problem
\[\begin{align}\min\>&\bar{\color{darkred}x} \\ & \bar{\color{darkred}x}= \frac{\sum_i \color{darkred}x_i}{\color{darkblue}n}\\ & \frac{\sum_i (\color{darkred}x_i - \bar{\color{darkred}x})^2}{\color{darkblue}n-1} \ge \color{darkblue}\alpha^2 \\ & \color{darkred}x_i \in \{0,1\}\end{align}\]

First, we replaced \(\lt\) by \(\ge\) to make the problem more interesting. Furthermore I got rid of the square root. This removes a possible problem with being non-differentiable at zero. The remaining problem is a non-convex quadratically constrained (MIQCP=Mixed Integer Quadratically Constrained Problem). The non-convexity implies we want a global solver.

This model solves easily with solvers like Baron or Couenne.

Integer variable

When we look at the problem a bit more, we see we are not really interested in which \(x_i\)'s are zero or one. Rather, we need only to worry about the number. Let \(k = \sum_i x_i\), Obviously \(\bar{x}=k/n\). But more interestingly: \[\mathbf{sd}(x) = \sqrt{\frac{k (1-\bar{x})^2+(n-k)(0-\bar{x})^2}{n-1}}\] The integer variable \(k\) is restricted to \(k=0,2,\dots,n\).

Thus we can write:

MINLP problem
\[\begin{align}\min\>&\color{darkred}k \\  & \frac{\color{darkred}k (1-\color{darkred}k/\color{darkblue}n)^2+(\color{darkblue}n-\color{darkred}k) (\color{darkred}k/\color{darkblue}n)^2}{\color{darkblue}n-1} \ge \color{darkblue}\alpha^2 \\ & \color{darkred}k = 0,1,\dots,\color{darkblue}n \end{align}\]

The constraint can be simplified into \[\frac{k-k^2/n}{n-1}\ge \alpha^2\] This is now so simple we can do this by enumerating \(k=0,\dots,n\), check the constraint, and pick the best.

Because of the form of the standard deviation curve (note the symmetry), we can specialize the enumeration loop and restrict the loop to \(k=1,\dots,\lfloor n/2 \rfloor\). Pick the first \(k\) that does not violate the constraint (and when found exit the loop). For very large \(n\) we can use something like a bisection to speed things up even further.

So this example optimization problem does not really need to use optimization at all.


  1. Constrained optimisation with function in the constraint and binary variable,
  2. Another problem that minimizes the standard deviation,